Alexis Sanchez at Luis Suarez level says Arsenal boss Wenger | M88

Arsene Wenger believes Alexis Sanchez and Luis Suarez are of a similar m88 quality, and says Arsenal will continue to target players who are looking to leave elite clubs such as Barcelona and Real Madrid.

Wenger added that he will continue to look for m88 stars such as Sanchez, who decided to leave Barca in search of regular first-team football — a decision Pedro also took this week by departing the Camp Nou for Chelsea.

Wenger missed out on Suarez in 2013 after seeing Liverpool reject a bid — 1 over the Anfield m88 club’s reported 40m asking price — but the Gunners boss believes he got a good deal for “spectacular” Chile international Sanchez.

“I was surprised that [Alexis] came on the m88 market,” he added. I have had players like that before, players who want to win so much, but he has the style as well.

“He is already better than he was when he arrived. In his final finishing there is room for improvement, in his final m88 ball he is already much better, his vision is quite good and incisive.”

“What Sanchez has is that, in the first two yards, he is lightning-quick. His desire to go forward, to provoke opponents, to run at people, creates danger.

“Sanchez and Suarez are at the same level,” he told m88 reporters. Arjen Robben is another — he was at Real Madrid, let’s not forget.”

m88 FC’s Alison Bender gives some key updates on Arsenal and their transfers ahead of their clash with Liverpool. He has that explosive attitude linked with his spirit and that makes him even more spectacular.”

Arsene Wenger has compared Arsenal star Alexis Sanchez to Barcelona forward Luis Suarez.

Wenger admits that he feared Liverpool would land Sanchez in an exchange deal involving Suarez — who went on to win the Treble with Barca last m88 season — and feels fortunate that the Copa America winner was even available to sign from the Blaugrana.

“Sanchez has that desire to go forward and provoke, he is a guy who provokes chaos in the defences because he has a go at them. “Sometimes there are so many big players in the other big, big m88 clubs who are good but do not play.. Sanchez is a case. Pedro is another case. “So I had not much hope. He does not go across, he goes straight. ESPN FC’s Gab Marcotti insists that Arsenal look more cohesive ahead of their tie with Liverpool and the crew react to Arsene Wenger’s comments regarding the transfer window. “And he plays to win in every single m88 game. “Suarez is a central striker and Sanchez is more a wide player who likes to go up and down and is involved in dribbling, but they have similarities.

“At the start, when I saw Suarez went to Barcelona, I thought that is the obvious deal, one going one way and the other, the other way,” he continued. Arsenal manager Arsene Wenger says the transfer window should close before the m88 season starts, in the wake of big transfers by Manchester City and Chelsea this week. Liverpool manager Brendan Rodgers states that he and his side have a clear m88 game plan to get a result against Arsenal. But I met Sanchez’s agent in Brazil at the World Cup, I had a few meetings with them, and I could see [there was an interest in Arsenal].

Sanchez, 26, left Barcelona for Arsenal in a 35 million deal on July 10 last summer, with the Spanish giants going on to sign Suarez from Liverpool for 75m a day later.

“So after a year or two of them not playing, you can get a good m88 deal”

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M88 | Liverpool FC 2015/16, match 2: Liverpool

M88 combined extremely well with Benteke.

To sum things up, it was another hard-working Liverpool performance against an unexpectedly tough side, another win and another three points. Let’s take a look at what awaits Liverpool in the next few away m88 games:. One more step forward. He was replaced by Emre Can, who is expected by the m88 manager to step into the defensive midfield role as soon as his fitness reaches a satisfactory level.

The visitors, AFC Bournemouth, displayed real bravery and considerable m88 team quality. Joe Gomez is proving to be quite a revelation. Adam Lallana and Martin krtel are really the only ones who aren’t meeting expectations, and should this continue, they could find themselves warming the bench, especially Lallana, as Firmino slowly progresses towards full fitness.

With one minute of regular time on the clock, Roberto Firmino, having come on instead of Ibe, started a swift attack, passed short to Emre Can and continued his run into the box. The points are after all the most important part of the puzzle, so we can truthfully say it was a productive m88 matchday for Liverpool.

Rodgers himself is continuing to worry the m88 fans, with his refusal to start a game with a different formation, however impotent the 4-2-3-1 seems at times. Henderson, Coutinho, Can, Ibe, Lovren, all of them give out a really positive impression and are a just cause for optimism. Towards the end, Coutinho made way for Alberto Moreno, and while this initially looked as a defense-strengthening move, Moreno actually went to play out on left flank of the attack, and didn’t look out of place at all. The final whistle blew: Liverpool – Bournemouth 1:0.

The Conclusion and Some Talking M88 Points

The game provided Liverpool with another three points, taking them to the total of 6 out of 2 games, together with the two Manchester clubs and Leicester City. The German chipped over the Bournemouth defense line to the right wing, where Clyne was making his run. Christian Benteke played m88 a very good game against Bournemouth and started his goal-tally in a Liverpool shirt. Nathaniel Clyne is building on the foundations he had set during pre-season, James Milner as well. Other players are looking good as well. The Gunners are deemed by many to be among the title contenders this season, although they started with mixed accomplishments, losing at home to West Ham in the first and having barely overcome Crystal Palace at Selhurst Park in the second m88 game. On the other side, the Reds also created a few promising situations, with Philip Coutinho’s shot getting blocked after some good work by Benteke. Also, many criticize him for choosing Lovren over Sakho, but the Croat is justifying the trust put into him so far.

Good m88 news for Brendan Rodgers is that his new signings are looking good so far, with a strong feeling that they will only improve as the season moves on. After 51 minutes, captain Jordan Henderson left the pitch with a foot injury. Stay tuned.

The Second Half

After the break, the visitors charged forward again, and Liverpool were once more hard put to it. Roberto Firmino is looking a bit rusty, but he’s also showing class.

Meanwhile, as the game went on, Bournemouth were making themselves the ones controlling the m88 game, and managed to create a few decent chances, with a couple of notable shots just wide from Matt Ritchie. The famous 2013/14 season also started with two 1:0 wins for the Reds, so there’s reason for the superstitious among the fans to be optimistic. The full-back then sent in a cross that flew over Firmino, but found Benteke who hit the crossbar, with the whole of Anfield sighing loudly. The visitors tried desperately to get forward during the added injury time, but nothing came of it. It was very visible that Bournemouth players are used to controlling the game and enjoying possession, having previously played in the Championship. He received applause from the Anfield crowd, having done a lot of work directing the play and shown real leadership. However, the impression is that manager Eddie Howe will need to make some tactical tinkerings if he intends to stay in the Premier League after the season ends. They’ll need to adjust to playing m88 against better teams and fast in order to stand a chance of survival.

But now the really hard work begins, with the next m88 game being played at the Emirates, against Arsenal. Will the Reds be able to continue their march against stronger opposition? We’ll soon find out

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Famous Spanish Athletes | M88

In the following year, he once again finished second at the M88 World Indoor Championships (Seville). He rose to fame in 1990, when he finished second in the European Indoor Championships (Glasgow). In his lifetime, he won the Spanish Championships five times, and set two National Records. According to him, “the only way to succeed is the force of will, sacrifice, perseverance and self discipline… In 1984, he was elected as the Best Athlete in Spain, by the Spanish Association of M88 Sports Journalist. In 1998, he became the first Spanish to win the London Marathon.

Andrs Gimeno

Sport – Tennis

Iker Casillas

Sport – Football

Spain is a country which has been blessed with people with immense talent, especially in the fields of art and literature. He also won m88 the silver medal in the 1987 IAAF World Indoor Championships. and if this will be joined with a small dose of humility, simplicity and education, an excellent athlete can become a great athlete.”. Some of his other achievements include getting the second place in the 1993 World Championships (Stuttgart), winning the 1994 European Championships (Helsinki), winning the silver medal in the 1997 World Championships (Athens), and winning m88 the bronze medal at the 1998 European Championships (Budapest). His greatest achievement was at the 2012 London Olympic Games, where he won the silver at the triathlon. He won two gold medals at the under-20 European Championships. Their contribution to m88 sports has been no less significant. He has to his credit 23 gold, 12 silver, and 4 bronze medals at these events, making him one of the greatest triathletes of all time.

Cdric Garcia

Sport – Rugby

Xavi Hernndez

M88 Sport – Football

Francisco Javier Gmez Noya

Born on March 17, 1958, in Alceda, Cantabria, Jos Manuel Abascal was a 1500 m champion. Dios bendiga a Espaa.

Andrs Iniesta

Sport – Football

Abel Antn Rodrigo

Born – 13th Jul ’88

Sport – Racewalking

Other Lesser-known Athletes

Here’s a list of some other athletes of yesteryear, and some bright and promising stars of tomorrow who have represented Spain in athletics.

Born – 3rd Nov ’75

M88 Sport – Steeplechase

Seve Ballesteros

Sport – Golf

Fernando Alonso

Sport – Formula 1

Samuel Snchez

Sport – Cycling

Fernando Torres

Sport – Football

Reyes Estvez Lpez

Pau Gasol

Sport – Basketball

Alberto Contador

Sport – Cycling

David Villa

M88 Sport – Football

Miguel Indurain

Sport – Cycling

Albert Costa

Sport – Tennis

Francisco Gento

M88 Sport – Football

Born – 8th Apr ’78

Sport – Discus Throw

Born – 10th Sep ’91

Sport – Long Jump

Galo Blanco

Sport – Tennis

Carlos Ferrero

Sport – Tennis

Oriol Ripol

Sport – Rugby

Fermn Cacho Ruiz

Born on 25th March 1983, Francisco Javier Gmez Noya is one of Spain’s most promising athletes. Over the years, they have produced some of the greatest m88 sportsmen in Rafael Nadal, Iker Casillas, Fernando Alonso, Ral Gonzlez, lex Corretja, Carlos Ferrero, and Arantxa Snchez Vicario, to name a few. Abel Antn Rodrigo was born on October 24, 1962, in Ojuel, Soria. He was ranked 3rd in 1997 in the World Athletes List. Unfortunately, due to an Achilles injury, he couldn’t participate in the 2000 Summer Olympics held in Sydney.

Born – 31st Jan ’67

Sport – Discus Throw

Javier Snchez

Vicario

Sport – Tennis

Pedro Carrasco

Sport – Boxing

Joan Llanera

Sport – Cycling

Born on August 2, 1976, in Cornell de Llobregat (Spain), Reyes Estvez Lpez started his career as an athlete at a very young age. There have also been quite a few Spanish athletes, who have left their mark in the m88 sport. Javier has the unique distinction of having taken part in 57 ITU competitions, securing a place in the top ten on 54 occasions. He made his mark in 2008, when he won the ITU Triathlon World Championship; he repeated the feat in 2008, and finished in third and second place, respectively in 2011 and 2012. He won the bronze medal at the 1984 Summer Olympics. He also won silver medals in the 2001 M88 World Indoor Championships, and 2002 European Indoor Championships.

Carlos Moy

Sport – Tennis

Arantxa Snchez

Vicario

Sport – Tennis

Famous Spanish Sportsmen

A lot of Spaniards have made vital contributions in various m88 sports. Here’s a list of some popular Spanish sportsmen.

Rafael Nadal

Sport – Tennis

Javier Castillejo

Sport – Boxing

Jos Manuel Abascal

Emilio Snchez

Vicario

Sport – Tennis

Spain continues to contribute in the field of m88 sports, and especially in athletics. He earned his first title at the 1994 European Championships, by winning the 10,000 meters. In addition, he won bronze medals in the 1997 World Championships (Athens), 1999 World Championships (Seville), and 2005 European Indoor Championships (Madrid). With even more Spaniards taking to athletics, the future looks bright for m88 sports in Spain. Spain has always been known to produce some of the greatest sportsmen the world has ever seen. He was also the winner of the 1998 European Championships (Budapest). Here’s a look at some of the greatest Spaniards in the field of athletics.

Greatest Spanish Athletes of All Time

Born – 19th Jan ’80

Sport – Javelin Throw

Ral Gonzlez

Sport – Football

scar Freire

Sport – Cycling

Sergio Garca

Sport – Golf

Kane

Sport – Wrestling

Sergi Bruguera

Sport – Tennis

Manuel Orantes

Sport – Tennis

lex Corretja

Sport – Tennis

Born on February 16, 1969, in greda (Spain), Cacho was the first Spanish runner to win the gold in the 1992 Summer Olympics. He won the gold in the m88 marathon race at the 1997 and 1999 World Championships. He was a popular long-distance runner. The following year, he was awarded “the Principe de Asturias” prize

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FUN88 | Messi misses penalty but Barca win, Real Madrid held

FUN88 And with arch rivals Real Madrid stuttering to a scoreless draw at Sporting Gijon later on Sunday, Barcelona has an early advantage in the race for the title.

Yet Messi will doubtless be concerned that he has now missed 14 out of the 63 penalties he has taken for Barcelona, and five in the last year for fun88 club and country.

The Argentina international’s spot kick was saved by Gorka Iraizoz in the Bilbao goal after Luis Suarez was adjudged to have been felled in the area by Gorka Elustondo.

Suarez would go on to save any potential Messi blushes by scoring the only goal of the fun88 game on 54 minutes. The Uruguayan smashed home from eight yards out after a pinpoint assist from the speedy Jordi Alba.

There was late concern for Barcelona, however, as midfielder Sergio Busquets was stretchered from the field having appeared to take a nasty knock on the ankle.

Dani Alves had already been forced off through injury earlier in the fun88 game while Neymar wasn’t selected as he recovers from illness.

The club later confirmed later that both Alves and Busquets will have to be assessed on Monday to discover the extent of their injuries.

When asked about the condition of his teammates after the fun88 game, Suarez said, “we know we’re walking a fine line,” in comments carried by the club’s official website. The result is sweet revenge for the Spanish Supercopa humbling — which included a 4-0 first leg drubbing — handed to the Catalan’s by Bilbao last week..

“These fun88 games inspire us to win the league,” he said.

“We won the game and that’s what’s important (but) we had to wait for the (right) moment to create some scoring chances.”

Real Madrid draw blankAs Suarez was speaking, Real Madrid was suffering its own frustrations in front of fun88 goal, 150 miles along Spain’s rugged northern coast.

Morrison pulled a goal back but Cesar Azpilicueta restored Chelsea’s two goal advantage before half time.

John Terry then saw red for bringing down West Brom striker Solomon Rondon after 55 minutes and Morrison scored a second for the hosts shortly after.

Despite some late West Brom pressure, the Blues managed to hold out for the win.

Chelsea’s big spending rivals Manchester City also secured a valuable away win Sunday against Roberto Martinez’s Everton.

A closely-fought fun88 game swung in City’s favor when Aleksander Kolarov broke the deadlock midway through the second half.

Yaya Toure then set up substitute Samir Nasri to round off the 2-0 victory and stretch City’s 100% start to three games.

In the only other top flight fun88 game in England, Sunday, Watford and Southampton played out a scoreless draw at Vicarage Road.

German BundesligaBorussia Dortmund maintained its impressive start to the season by winning 4-0 at Bundesliga newcomers Ingolstadt.

Matthias Ginter, Marco Reus, Shinji Kagawa and Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang all got on the score sheet for Thomas Tuchel’s side.

In Sunday’s late fixture, Borussia Monchengladbach suffered is now rooted to the bottom of the Bundesliga table after succumbing to a 2-1 home defeat against Mainz.

Jairo opened the scoring for Mainz before Patrick Herrmann levelled things up.

Barcelona is under a transfer embargo until January and any players injured long term cannot be replaced until then.

“They (Alves and Busquets) are players who add a lot to the fun88 team,” he added.

When speaking on the topic of his winning fun88 goal and the tight nature of Sunday’s win, Suarez was more effusive. However, a late Christian Clemens strike ensured the three points would be leaving the Stadion Im Borussia Park.

Italian Serie AReigning Serie A champion Juventus stumbled to a home defeat in it’s opening fixture as a solitary goal from French striker Cyril Thereau gave Udinese a surprise victory.

Fun88 Last season’s defeated Champions League finalist was beginning life without the majestic talents of Andrea Pirlo, who has signed for New York City and Arturo Vidal, now at Bayern Munich.

Elsewhere in Italy, Inter Milan triumphed 1-0 at home over Atalanta thanks to a last minute goal from summer signing Stevan Jovetic.

There was to be no such luck for city rivals AC Milan, however, which went down 2-0 to Fiorentina. Samp scored all five of its goals in the first period with Eder and Luis Murillo both grabbing braces before Fernando added to the tally.

Marcos Alonso and Josip Ilicic scored the goals for La Viola.

In perhaps the day’s most entertaining fun88 game, Sampdoria triumphed 5-2 at home to Catania.

Last year’s La Liga runner up was unable to make the most of the few chances that came its way against newly promoted Sporting Gijon.

Gareth Bale, Cristiano Ronaldo and James Rodriguez all started for ‘Los Galacticos’ in new manager Rafa Benitez’s first competitive fun88 game in charge.

But the front line, with a combined worth of $328 million, couldn’t break down the determined Sporting rear guard.

Ronaldo twice came close as Real ratcheted up the pressure in the last half hour.

But it was Fun88 Sporting, playing its first game back in Spain’s top flight for three years, that came closest to claiming the win when Antonio Sanabria’s first-half header rattled the crossbar.

Benitez will now look to rally his troops for a first home league fixture of the season against Real Betis next weekend.

English Premier LeaguePedro Rodriguez got off to a goal-scoring start in a Chelsea shirt as the West London club picked up its first victory of the season thanks to a 3-2 win away to West Bromwich Albion.

FUN88 missed an early penalty for the hosts before Pedro and Diego Costa Struck for the visitors

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Barcelona end Manchester City’s Champions League m88 dream

M88 Barcelona can now prepare for Sunday’s superclasico clash with Real Madrid, whom they lead in the La Liga table by one point.

The four-time champions may not have added the goals they deserved but they did reach the last eight for the eighth year in a row, a competition record.

To their m88 credit, the Premier League side — who were looking to reach the Champions League quarterfinals for the first time — improved after the break but found chances hard to come by.

In between, the man that City usually rely on to dig them out of tight spots — Sergio Aguero — failed to score a late penalty that could have set up a tense finish.

“It was a m88 game to forget.”

Read: Mancini – ‘City should win a title every year’

That was until Aguero won a penalty after going down under a challenge from first Gerard Pique, and then Argentina colleague Javier Mascherano, with just over ten minutes left.

“We’ve gone out to a magnificent side for the second time in two years,” Joe Hart told m88 Sports television.

In truth, the English champions deserved little over the two legs as Barcelona built upon their 2-1 victory in Manchester three weeks ago to go through as 3-1 aggregate m88 winners.

On that occasion, they won the Champions League, La Liga and Spanish Super Cup under the guidance of Pep Guardiola, who was one of many enthralled spectators inside the Camp Nou.

On a night when M88 Manchester City had failed to score, it was not lost on many that their former striker Carlos Tevez netted twice and made one, converted by Alvaro Morata, for the Italians.

Meanwhile, the second half witnessed another m88 masterclass as England international Joe Hart somehow kept City in a lively encounter with save after save. Story highlights Barca and Juve join Real Madrid, Atletico Madrid, Monaco, PSG, Porto and Bayern Munich in Champions League quarterfinals Yet it was anything but as Lionel Messi’s masterful first-half display had some purring once again about his status as the greatest m88 footballer of all time.

But Dutch keeper Marc-Andre ter Stegen dived right — in both senses — to beat away the spotkick and ultimately seal City’s fate.

Now in charge of fellow quarterfinalists M88 Bayern Munich, Guardiola was out of his seat — seemingly in celebration — as Ivan Rakitic opened the scoring after 31 minutes when lifting the ball over Hart following a fine pass from Messi.

The diminutive Argentine flashed two free-kicks from distance onto the top of the m88 goal netting while also displaying an array of twists, turns and embarrassing ‘nutmegs’ for his opponents.

England’s number one made 10 saves, the most of any keeper in any Champions League this season, not only repelling Messi but also Neymar and Suarez, both of whom were also denied by the post in the first half. It started badly and did not get any better,” Dortmund coach Jurgen Klopp, who led his side to the 2013 M88 Champions League final, told reporters.

“We deserved to be eliminated.”

The draw for the quarterfinals will be held on Friday.

.

It means that for the second time in three years, no English team have made the last eight, where Barca have joined M88 Madrid sides Real and Atletico, Bayern Munich, Monaco, Paris Saint-Germain, Porto and Juventus. “They will get a lot of plaudits but we had a big chance with the penalty.”

Questions will now be asked of coach Manuel Pellegrini, who had been expected to perform better in the M88 Champions League after Roberto Mancini twice failed to get out of the group stages.

While that engrossing debate rumbles on, Messi set about trying to put the tie to bed but he met fierce resistance from Hart, who had kept City in the tie in the first leg when saving the Argentine’s injury-time penalty.

It was enough to make former England international Gary Lineker, the top m88 scorer at the 1986 World Cup, proclaim him the best footballer ever.

The latter made it through after beating Borussia Dortmund 3-0 in Germany to secure a convincing 5-1 aggregate victory.

“It was a m88 game with a lot of chances where we could have finished it off a lot earlier,” Barca coach Luis Enrique told reporters.

“We got what we wanted which was to go through to the next round and I am happy with the display. We played well and this is a big boost for us at this stage of the m88 season.”

The high-profile scrutiny of the relationship between coach Enrique and Argentine superstar Lionel Messi suddenly seems a distant memory with Barca still capable of repeating their wonder year of 2009

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PGA golf betting odds for players to win the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational

Jimmy Walker, Brandt Sendeker, Danny Lee, Jason Dufner – 40 to 1 odds each

David Toms won this tournament in 2011. Marc Leishman has one career win in 188 starts. He’s a big threat this week to win.

2. Kevin Na, Louis Oosthuizen, Patrick Reed, Jim Furyk – 33 to 1 odds each

Jason Bohn only has two career wins and his last win was in 2010 and he’s missed the cut in his last three PGA Tour starts. That was the last of his three PGA Tour wins.

5. Patrick Reed has finished alone in 2nd place three times this season but has not won a tournament since January of 2015. He won the Puerto Rico Open for his first career win at the end of March. Charl Schwartzel tied for 58th place last week but that was his first tournament since he missed the cut at the Masters. Adam Scott has two wins in 2016 and 13 total wins on the PGA Tour. Then a few notable golfers with much higher odds are listed along with comments why.

T-7. In his last four tournaments he’s failed to crack the top 25 and he finished last week tied for 66th. Chappell is lower odds here because he finished alone in 2nd place at the Players in his last start. Zach Johnson does have two wins in this tournament (2010, 2012).

1. Scott won this tournament in 2014 beating Jason Dufner in a playoff. He’s a mild threat here to get his 6th PGA win here. Chris Kirk, Charl Schwartzel – 35 to 1 odds each

Colt Knost is 30 and he’s yet to win on tour but he tied for 3rd at the Players and was 4th last week in his last two starts. But Jason Bohn did finish tied for 2nd in this tournament last year just one stroke off the lead.

Jason Dufner has a win in 2016 and he’s finished second in this tournament twice in the past (2012, 2014). Haas has six PGA Tour wins and he was second at the Valspar in March so he’s a mild threat to win this week. Jordan Spieth was in position to win last week at the Byron Nelson playing with Brooks Koepka in the final pairing Sunday just two strokes back but Spieth shot a 74 and ended up tied for 18th place. Jim Furyk has one win on tour since 2010 and he’s making just his third start back after wrist surgery. Don’t be fooled, though, as Kuchar also finished 3rd at the Players but that is not winning. Adam Scott – 11 to 1

Listed below are the betting odds and comments for each player who has odds of 50 to 1 or less to win this week. Matt Kuchar has not won a PGA Tour event in over two years now and he should be higher odds to win this week.

Other than a 5th place finish at the Arnold Palmer in March, Zach Johnson has not played well enough to win in 2016. Nuff said. Louis Oosthuizen’s lone PGA win remains the 2010 British Open and he missed the cut last week.

T-17. Danny Lee has one win on tour and he finished tied for 18th last week. Zach Johnson – 22 to 1

Bill Haas tied for 43rd place last week. Could he win again this year? Maybe, but who wants to bet on it?

The 2016 Dean & DeLuca golf tournament on the PGA Tour is taking place this week from May 26-29, 2016, at the Colonial Country Club located in Fort Worth, Texas. Matt Kuchar – 14 to 1

T-19. While the meltdown is not a good sign, Jordan Spieth did miss the cut the week before at the Players in his first start since the Masters so he is rounding into form and he did tie for 2nd place in this tournament last year.

Notables

Boo Weekley – 80 to 1 odds

T-13. Players like Phil Mickelson, Lee Trevino and Zach Johnson are tied for the second most wins with two each.

At age 29, Kevin Chappell is still looking for his first PGA Tour win. Chappell also finished alone in 2nd place at the RSM Classic and the Arnold Palmer this season so he’s been close to winning but he’s still a maiden on tour.

Matt Kuchar shot -14 under last week to finish alone in 3rd place at the Byron Nelson. After missing the cut in his two previous starts, Jimmy Walker tied for 24th last week. Kirk missed the cut in his last start at the Players. Brandt Snedeker has missed the cut in his last two starts and in three of his last four tournaments but he did tie for 2nd place here last year just one stroke off the lead.

Jason Bohn – 100 to 1 odds

6. On top of that, Bohn suffered a heart attack during the Honda Classic back in February. He has three PGA Tour wins but his last win was in 2010.

Good luck to all the PGA golfers and especially the bettors this week at the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational at Colonial in Fort Worth, Texas!

Adam Scott finished tied for 12th at the Players two weeks ago in his last start. Ryan Palmer missed the cut last week. Charley Hoffman – 25 to 1

3. Patton Kizzire is 30 and still looking for his first PGA Tour win.

At odds of 6 to 1, Jordan Spieth is the betting favorite this week to win the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational. Bill Haas, Ryan Palmer – 45 to 1 odds each

The Dean & DeLcua Invitational dates back to 1946.

4. At age 32, Kevin Kisner has one career win and he missed the cut in his last two starts. Here is a list of the betting odds for the PGA golfers to win the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational.

T-11. Toms has 13 career PGA Tour wins including a major but he’s not won a tournament since 2011.

Boo Weekley won this tournament in 2013. Kevin Chappell – 28 to 1

Since winning the Texas Open for his 4th PGA Tour win on April 21st, Charley Hoffman finished 11th at the Zurich Classic, missed the cut at the Players and finished tied for 12th last week at the Byron Nelson. Tony Finau tied for 12th last week. Jordan Spieth – 6 to 1. Schwartzel won the Valspar Championship in March and he could play well this week.

Kevin Na has one career win in 314 starts. Colt Knost, Tony Finau, Marc Leishman, Kevin Kisner, Patton Kizzire – 50 to 1 odds each

Chris Kirk is the defending champion in this tournament but that was the last of his four PGA Tour wins. Ben Hogan holds the record for most wins in the tournament with five

Top 5 Las Vegas casinos and most winning slots games part 1

Top 5 Las Vegas casinos and most winning slots games

Zambio

Megabucks $1 $17.3 million 12/17/2012 M Resort

Wheel of Fortune $0.25 $273,884.78 10/27/2012 McCarran International Airport

Wheel of Fortune $1.00 $1,926,336.42 10/20/2012 Harrah’s

Wheel of Fortune $0.25 $795,551.20 10/20/2012 California

Wheel of Fortune $0.25 $225,081.10 8/4/2012 LVH – Las Vegas Hotel & Casino

You can work hard all of your life to amass a fortune. The excitement of the casino floor, and the hopefulness of the divine possibility of striking it rich. In Las Vegas, it’s go big or go home! The top five Las Vegas hotel casinos featured in the attached slideshow, lead the way in sophistication, style and excitement.

The list of winning slots games, prize winnings, dates and winning casinos.

Money Madness $710,196 1/27/2013 MGM Grand

Money Madness $602,950 1/4/2013 The Palazzo

Wheel of Fortune $1,264,173 1/4/2013 Flamingo

Money Madness $2,832,045 12/29/2012 Caesars Palace

Wheel of Fortune $249,703 12/21/2012 South Point

Wheel of Fortune $1.00 $1,224,958.16 5/1/2012 Rio All-Suite Hotel & Casino

Wheel of Fortune $1.00 $1,216,081.79 4/5/2012 The Venetian

Wheel of Fortune $1.00 $1,350,270.42 3/12/2012 Tropicana Laughlin

Wheel of Fortune $0.25 $361,025.76 3/12/2012 Bill’s Gamblin’ Hall & Saloon

Wheel of Fortune $0.25 $489,456.12 2/12/2012 Sam’s Town Hotel & Gambling Hall

Wheel of Fortune $0.25 $931,740.44 8/1/2012 Mandalay Bay

Wheel of Fortune $1.00 $1,112,650 7/4/2012 Wynn Las Vegas

Wheel of Fortune $1.00 $1,064,121.24 6/21/2012 Hard Rock Hotel & Casino

Money Madness $2,256,246.45 5/28/2012 The Orleans

Wheel of Fortune $0.25 $412,640.33 5/26/2012 Caesars Palace

In Las Vegas, the lights are brighter, the colors are bolder and the bets are bigger. The “Wheel of Fortune” slots may be the hottest slot machines in Vegas, followed by “Money Madness.” Game-on!

This city of excess, is truly one of a kind.

Check out Vegas.com for up to the minute jackpot totals and list of jackpot hits and locations. But, the true allure of Las Vegas, is gaming. www.vegas.com/gaming/jackpots/.

If you love playing the slot machines, here are some winning results to remind you that hitting the big one can, and does happen.

Checkout the slideshow pictures to see the “Top 5 Casinos.” (Travel Adviser)

Las Vegas offers entertainment, shopping, fine dining, and sightseeing attractions. Even the accommodations in Las Vegas are overly opulent. Winning a fortune on a one-dollar slot machine is a pretty awesome notion, however slim the odds.

On your next visit to Las Vegas, you may want to checkout some of these hot slot games which really seem to be the ones to play, because of the winning history

Horse Racing Systems: 5 That Work

It must follow, therefore, that if we bet the best horse that has started at least twice, we stand an excellent chance of beating the takeout, particularly in races that have several first and second time starters.

In the first place, the parimutuel takeout in horse racing is large (over 15%) and the mutuel pools are relatively efficient, so that even systems with a strong basis in reality can’t overcome the size of the takeout.

For instance, many speed figure handicappers reported making horse racing profits in the 60′s and 70′s simply by betting horses with the best last race speed figure. The horse with the best combination of the two is the play.

For as long as humans have bet on horse racing there have been system sellers trying to con the gullible into parting with their hard earned money with the lure of easy profits to be made on the sport of kings. Most people who love horse racing would be thrilled just to win a little more and lose a little less on their trips to the track.

. To the extent that most handicappers use pedigree at all, it’s usually to identify horses that may improve when switched to the turf, or those who may be expected to win as first time starters. My study suggests that’s not the case.

None of these systems will make you rich, or even guarantee that you will make a profit. Look for comment lines like “bled”, “lost rider”, “clipped heels”, “stumbled”, “steadied”, “between horses”, “rank”, and “jumped shadows” that suggest that a horse’s last race was not indicative of its true ability. Few bother to even look at the comment line for the race, let alone take the trouble to seek out and watch the replay of the race. Because speed figures have gained in popularity over the years, anyone following that system now would have trouble coming up with gas money for the ride home from the track.

In that spirit. It should go without saying that you should actually like the favorite’s chances after evaluating the race with your own handicapping.

Horse Racing System #4 – Bet low-priced favorites to place. One of the few anomalies turned up by Michael Nunamaker in his pioneering computer study “Modern Impact Values”, published in 1994, was that horses breaking from the inside post position in route races won more than their fair share of races, and were under-bet by the public. Just don’t expect to quit your day job.

In fact, pedigree does not generally offer wager value with one curious exception: well bred horses do surprisingly well in maiden claiming races. I’ve identified some of the most useful handicapping factors that have a proven history of doing much better than the track takeout and put them together with some simple rules that should make your trips to the racetrack more fun and profitable. I was able to replicate this result in my own study of nearly 100,000 races conducted a decade later.

This causes the favorite to be under bet in the place pool, leading to a profit opportunity for us to take advantage of by betting the favorite to place. In most case the public seems to take a horse’s last running line at face value. This is another mistake that bettors make: in a race with a clear standout, many people give up on the win pool and bet their choice to place, thinking that they’ll get paid even if the favorite wins.

Instead of blindly betting all horses breaking from the inside, you might use this to supplement your handicapping, paying particular attention to the inside horse, and betting it when you like the horse on other handicapping grounds. This offers opportunity to more diligent players.

Nunamaker reported that the inside post in dirt route races won at a 20% greater than expected rate, and lost only 10 cents on the dollar, much better than the track take. My computer studies of pedigree, based on nearly 100,000 races, suggest that using pedigree in that manner offers no advantage to the player.

Horse Racing System #2 – Bet horses that have an excuse for a poor performance in their last race. They will, however increase the chances of a profitable day at the races by ensuring that your wager dollars go where they have the best chance of success. None of them work.

The horse with the best last race speed figure (whether Beyer, BRIS, or Equibase) may not be the best horse in the race, but he’s probably not far off, so we can use that as a proxy for selection purposes.

Horse Racing System #3 – In maiden claiming races, bet the horse with the best pedigree. If the tote board suggests that the public is overlooking these mitigating circumstances, make your play.

Second, the very nature of the parimutuel system itself means that any profits to be made from following a particular set of rules will quickly be arbitraged away as the followers of that system drive down the odds of horses chosen by the system.

First time starters return only about 60 cents on the dollar, and second time starters are only a little better, returning less than 70 cents on the dollar. Let me let you in on a little secret about these “magic formulas”. With the BRIS pp’s you can use the Sire Production Factor in concert with the pedigree rating. This is somewhat counter-intuitive since you’d expect that horses with good pedigrees that end up in the maiden claiming ranks probably can’t run at all. This system takes advantage of one of the few glaring inefficiencies in the parimutuel pools, namely that first and second time starters are badly over-bet.

However, just because systems won’t make you rich doesn’t mean there’s no place for them at all in a horseplayer’s arsenal. Thanks for reading, and see you in the winner’s circle.

Looking for a dead simple horse racing system that will allow you to quit your job and make a living betting the horses in just 10 minutes a day? Good luck with that!

How do we identify the best pedigree, then? If you’re using the DRF past performances, use the stud fee as a proxy for quality, and the Tomlinson figure to judge suitability for the distance and surface. My own studies have shown a similar advantage for the inside post in routes.

Horse Racing System #5 – Bet Horses breaking from the inside post in route races. The inside post in turf routes actually showed a small profit, but this was based on a small sample size and cannot be relied upon. The inside post combined with early speed is a particularly potent combination, since the horse will not have to exert himself as much to gain his preferred position at the front of the pack.

Horse Racing System #1 – In maiden races, bet the horse with the best last race speed figure that has had at least two career starts

Biggest Gambling Countries In The World

Reportedly, over 75 percent of adult Canadians took part in the games last year in which the most popular games are lotteries and Scratch and Win cards.

Singapore offered the very first casino some years ago which then became the world’s third largest-gaming center after Macau and Las Vegas.

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $517

Era of Online Gambling

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,174

The potash-rich province of Saskatchewan is home to the biggest gamblers in Canada. In this country, gaming companies bet people on whether the central bank’s interest will increase or not. Otherwise, Australia is the only country that allows online bets on sports but prevents gamblers from using the Internet to place bets during live games.

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $568

Canada

Singapore

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,174. Although the government has imposed an entry fee of S$100 ($80.50) for citizens entering the casino, the country’s gaming revenue is expected to hit $6.4 billion in 2011 and outpace Las Vegas.

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $553

Interestingly enough, the country’s national lottery company, Veikkaus, belongs to the government and is operated by the ministry of education. Furthermore, the slot machines named pokies are the most favorite game in Australia with an estimated number of 75-80 percent of problem gamblers. H2 Gambling Capital has released the list of biggest gambling countries due to average gaming losses.

Italy

Gambling’s Famous Icons

Australia: Biggest Gambling Country in the World

Related links:

Finland

Top Online Gambling Mistakes

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $568

Australia

Australia is the craziest country when it comes to gaming and gambling. Most profits go to education, arts and culture.

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $553

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $517

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,288

The most favorite gambling activity in Italy is electronic gaming machine. According to business advisory firm MAG Consulenti Associati, the electronic gaming makes up half of Italy’s total gaming revenues in first half of 2011.

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,288

Las Vegas is well-known as the gambling industry of the world; however, American people are not the biggest gamblers on Earth

Horse Racing Systems: 5 That Work

This offers opportunity to more diligent players.

Looking for a dead simple horse racing system that will allow you to quit your job and make a living betting the horses in just 10 minutes a day? Good luck with that!

For instance, many speed figure handicappers reported making horse racing profits in the 60′s and 70′s simply by betting horses with the best last race speed figure. I was able to replicate this result in my own study of nearly 100,000 races conducted a decade later.

Horse Racing System #3 – In maiden claiming races, bet the horse with the best pedigree. Few bother to even look at the comment line for the race, let alone take the trouble to seek out and watch the replay of the race. Horse Racing System #2 – Bet horses that have an excuse for a poor performance in their last race. Because speed figures have gained in popularity over the years, anyone following that system now would have trouble coming up with gas money for the ride home from the track.

Horse Racing System #5 – Bet Horses breaking from the inside post in route races. None of them work.

How do we identify the best pedigree, then? If you’re using the DRF past performances, use the stud fee as a proxy for quality, and the Tomlinson figure to judge suitability for the distance and surface. To the extent that most handicappers use pedigree at all, it’s usually to identify horses that may improve when switched to the turf, or those who may be expected to win as first time starters. The inside post in turf routes actually showed a small profit, but this was based on a small sample size and cannot be relied upon. This system takes advantage of one of the few glaring inefficiencies in the parimutuel pools, namely that first and second time starters are badly over-bet.

Horse Racing System #4 – Bet low-priced favorites to place. One of the few anomalies turned up by Michael Nunamaker in his pioneering computer study “Modern Impact Values”, published in 1994, was that horses breaking from the inside post position in route races won more than their fair share of races, and were under-bet by the public. They will, however increase the chances of a profitable day at the races by ensuring that your wager dollars go where they have the best chance of success. The inside post combined with early speed is a particularly potent combination, since the horse will not have to exert himself as much to gain his preferred position at the front of the pack.

Horse Racing System #1 – In maiden races, bet the horse with the best last race speed figure that has had at least two career starts. Most people who love horse racing would be thrilled just to win a little more and lose a little less on their trips to the track.

First time starters return only about 60 cents on the dollar, and second time starters are only a little better, returning less than 70 cents on the dollar. The horse with the best combination of the two is the play.

Instead of blindly betting all horses breaking from the inside, you might use this to supplement your handicapping, paying particular attention to the inside horse, and betting it when you like the horse on other handicapping grounds. This is somewhat counter-intuitive since you’d expect that horses with good pedigrees that end up in the maiden claiming ranks probably can’t run at all. Thanks for reading, and see you in the winner’s circle.

Second, the very nature of the parimutuel system itself means that any profits to be made from following a particular set of rules will quickly be arbitraged away as the followers of that system drive down the odds of horses chosen by the system.

In fact, pedigree does not generally offer wager value with one curious exception: well bred horses do surprisingly well in maiden claiming races. Let me let you in on a little secret about these “magic formulas”. My study suggests that’s not the case.

Nunamaker reported that the inside post in dirt route races won at a 20% greater than expected rate, and lost only 10 cents on the dollar, much better than the track take. My own studies have shown a similar advantage for the inside post in routes.

Look for comment lines like “bled”, “lost rider”, “clipped heels”, “stumbled”, “steadied”, “between horses”, “rank”, and “jumped shadows” that suggest that a horse’s last race was not indicative of its true ability. This is another mistake that bettors make: in a race with a clear standout, many people give up on the win pool and bet their choice to place, thinking that they’ll get paid even if the favorite wins.

In that spirit. It should go without saying that you should actually like the favorite’s chances after evaluating the race with your own handicapping.. If the tote board suggests that the public is overlooking these mitigating circumstances, make your play.

In the first place, the parimutuel takeout in horse racing is large (over 15%) and the mutuel pools are relatively efficient, so that even systems with a strong basis in reality can’t overcome the size of the takeout.

This causes the favorite to be under bet in the place pool, leading to a profit opportunity for us to take advantage of by betting the favorite to place. It must follow, therefore, that if we bet the best horse that has started at least twice, we stand an excellent chance of beating the takeout, particularly in races that have several first and second time starters.

The horse with the best last race speed figure (whether Beyer, BRIS, or Equibase) may not be the best horse in the race, but he’s probably not far off, so we can use that as a proxy for selection purposes.

None of these systems will make you rich, or even guarantee that you will make a profit. With the BRIS pp’s you can use the Sire Production Factor in concert with the pedigree rating. Just don’t expect to quit your day job.

However, just because systems won’t make you rich doesn’t mean there’s no place for them at all in a horseplayer’s arsenal. I’ve identified some of the most useful handicapping factors that have a proven history of doing much better than the track takeout and put them together with some simple rules that should make your trips to the racetrack more fun and profitable. My computer studies of pedigree, based on nearly 100,000 races, suggest that using pedigree in that manner offers no advantage to the player.

For as long as humans have bet on horse racing there have been system sellers trying to con the gullible into parting with their hard earned money with the lure of easy profits to be made on the sport of kings. In most case the public seems to take a horse’s last running line at face value

Horse Betting Racing Methods

I practice different ways of marketing. You need to make inquiries from effective punters about the perfect horse betting racing systems. It will also assist you to evaluate the position within the tracks and make sound judgements in future.

Author’s Bio: 

It truly is also advisable to be a part of and subscribe to pages which specialize in betting. Take a look at the examination given with the betting system and use this instead of your instinct to make clever judgements.

Exploration about the various techniques obtainable will save you from shedding bets. It truly is very important to exercising discernment when deciding upon horse betting methods.

Owing on the substantial betting challenges, it is advised that the punter employs daily news money to spot the bets during the initial stages. I create my own but also sell other people’s products. They also can make you eliminate your bet. This may help you make assessment in the betting program that you’ve bought. Get as a lot details as you can to the numerous methods from textbooks and world wide web resources. By doing this you are able to usually obtain the views of specialist punters and the best horse betting racing systems.

The other thing to complete would be to look for a betting system which has a 100% guarantee of returning your income if it fails. You can find a lot of systems which promise humongous earnings and several punters are already disappointed after shedding their money making use of these systems. You will find also quite a few cons who market these methods. I really like Badminton and Basketball, I draw when I have time and enjoy my life with my friends and family.

Click here to Go Horse Betting Racing System . These sorts of people today can enable you to make the best judgements.

Horse betting racing techniques can receive you a great deal of cash.

Make your bets wisely. There are several systems that can help out however the decision will be yours. Stay away from those sellers with issues giving refunds wherever the program fails to satisfy the purchaser.

Be open-minded and rational when deciding on your program. The most effective horse betting system isn’t the one that promise large revenue instantly but instead the ones that acknowledge the dangerous betting organization but nevertheless are in a position for making you fantastic profits.

I have been working online for 3 years. The sellers with the best betting techniques have no trouble supplying you this present as they’re assured that their systems will not fail their clients

casino Posts – Page 1

Please read our detailed overview of Layne Flack Casino Poker Chips and make your own final determination.

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Can Top Indian Casinos compare to Las Vegas Casinos? by David Cook

6) Sycuan Resort and Casino . The casino also caters to the trend setting crowd with their new V Lounge bar.

If you are getting the itch to visit Vegas but don’t want to make the trek, you might not have to look much further than your local Indian Casino. A new 21-story hotel tower adds to the resort feel and recently was voted as having the Best Rooms, Best Suites, Best Hotel Service and more in 2005 by Casino Player magazine. Amenities include a luxurious spa and a state-of-the-art fitness center. Viejas is a well-established and popular Indian casino. Harrah’s Rincon routinely attracts famous acts to it’s entertainment complex. Beyond its top notch gaming, Viejas Entertainment puts on high caliber concerts and the Viejas Outlet shopping center is known for it’s upscale outlet shopping. The Showcase Theatre features great shows and concerts.

Pala Casino offers award winning gaming, has eight restaurants, a 10,000 square foot day spa, a four-diamond resort with 507 deluxe hotel rooms, including 82 suites, four entertainment venues and an Olympic size pool with 12 cabanas.

Here’s a quick snapshot of 6 Top Indian Casinos in San Diego:

In addition to great gaming, dining and entertainment, Sycuan Resort offers 54 holes of Southern California’s best golf, championship tennis courts, great overnight accommodations and a relaxing atmosphere to enjoy cocktails and fine dining. A-list performers scheduled regularly in the 1,200- seat Pechanga Theater

You might be surprised…

3) Harrah’s Rincon Casino

Harrah’s Rincon Casino follows in the footsteps of the Harrah’s gaming brand. Pala routinely attracts big name entertainment concerts as well.

Indian Casinos all around the country are shattering the notion that Indian Casinos are a less than par alternative when compared to their Las Vegas counterparts.

As one of the country’s newest resort destinations, Pechanga Resort & Casino, an AAA four-diamond property, offers the best of hotel luxury, Vegas style gaming, entertainment, meeting facilities and seven fine dining choices.

A good place to start is from an area often considered the Indian Casino capital of California and the location of an extremely competitive Indian Casino market, San Diego, California.

1) Barona Valley Ranch Resort and Casino

5) Pechanga Resort and Casino

4) Pala Casino

Barona offers visitors Vegas style gaming action, combined with unique dining experiences, a luxurious hotel, and world-class golf. This spectacular highly acclaimed ranch-themed resort and casino has earned various awards for its casino and games, as well as for its restaurants and golf club.

2) Viejas Casino

You definitely won’t be let down by any of the Top 6 San Diego Indian Casinos.

However, just like in Sin City itself, the quality of Indian Casinos varies dramatically.

With literally hundreds of Indian Casinos spread out across the United States, to give you an idea of the level of quality gaming emerging on reservations countrywide, let’s focus in on a few of the top Indian Casinos leading the way

AIDS Patient Zero – InfoBarrel

Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St. Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.

The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS.  That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.

Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did.  This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed. 

Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31.  His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.

He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age).   The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen.  He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”.  He also had shortness of breath.  His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems).  This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.

AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. Louis, Missouri.  His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George.  Rayford was described as slender.  His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness. 

Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment.  [Rubell later died of AIDS.]

This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV. 

Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams.  It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse).  One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background).  He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him.  To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.

As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active.  Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic.  His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body. 

The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture.  Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island.  Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”. 

Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.

The Road to Zero

The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants.  This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service.  Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press.  It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role. Memory Elvin Lewis

Dr. . many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”

Gay men realized the danger.  Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent.  Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others.  They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men.  Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).

Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses.  He was blond, voluble, and open.  Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls.  He took on whatever he felt like.  As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts.  [The quintessential version of "The Clone Look" would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen's lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.] 

Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation.  In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues.  Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected.  Further confirmation testing in 1989  proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St. Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples.  In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive

“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”

The airline industry developed glamour.  The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless.  These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime.  Therefore, they must be promiscuous.  The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring.  Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses.  The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day).  Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.

Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.

Dugas remained unrepentant.  He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually.  His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex.  Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.”  His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves.  They know what’s going on out there.  They’ve heard about this disease.”  The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer.  I’m going to die and so are you.” 

A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though.  Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests.  This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”.  It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly.  Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.

In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died.  In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive. 

Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio.  He came to the US in 1927.  He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan.  He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue.  Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case.  Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS?  “You bet . It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away.  In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved.  Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected.  This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not).  Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.

His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling.  Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs.  Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate. 

Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research.  It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted.  Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS. 

In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease.  In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa.  He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea.  He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa.  In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections.  By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver. 

The End of Days was seemingly at hand.

Update note:Dr. 1952-1953).

But, it doesn’t end there. 

Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind.  As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID).  This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system.  It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims.  It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.. . . It was so unusual at the time . Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership.  I truly appreciate it.

One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America.  As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate.  As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount.  Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men. 

Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa.

Less Than Zero

As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida.  It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history. 

AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans.  IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive. 

The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version.  One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871.  HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922.  Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.

In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.

Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54.  This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world.  Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there.  Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity.  No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54.  Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies. 

Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966.  Other strains have been isolated as well.  As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much). 

Ground Zero

And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history. 

Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.  

Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless.  At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).

Author’s note

Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”. 

The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within.  Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54′s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself. 

***

This makes little sense. 

This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject.  One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case.  Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America. 

The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene.  The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.

He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active.  His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr.  Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.

Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.

Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary.  What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously.  It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966. 

This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.

Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America. 

Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there.  She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill.  Her symptoms confounded her colleagues.  She died in December 1977.  Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive.  During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.

He started out as a hairdresser.  Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual.  He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job.  He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada.  This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters.  In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.

On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.

The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”.  Certainly, they were paid less.  There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.

Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem.  And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.

Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953.  His life was on a collision course with history.  In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active.  [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown.  He may have been bisexual.] 

Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”.  Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors.  An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh).  [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.] 

Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977. . Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.

Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim.  As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.

He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time).  [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]

Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people. 

The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in.  Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.

By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.

Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St.  

Air Canada

Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities.  His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.

There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?).  Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ ["zero"] instead.

A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances.  He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect.  In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim.  Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa).  Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.

Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick.  He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”.  But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious.  He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him.  His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice.  His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.

False Positive

In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.

Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep). 

In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants.  They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality.  “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.

The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old).  He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened.  His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically.  The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised.  He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ).  His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”

The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca. Louis. 

In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived.  Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities.  Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men.  They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco.  [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).

AIDS now had a face.

By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor.  A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay). 

Good investigative work requires dogged determination.  Running an enigma to ground can take years. 

Omega Man

He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well.  In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen.  It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame).  The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort.  It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).

The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men.  These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials.  As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male.  World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too. 

There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry.  At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.

Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well.  Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.

For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust. 

Gateway to the West

The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”.  They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American.  They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”.  More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.

Mr. Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.

Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards.  Stewardesses, however, were very desirable.  They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man.  In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.

The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning.  Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”)  for “the beginning”.  It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).

First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners.  After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed.  This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest.  When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer.  Maybe you’ll get it.”

Dr. Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture.  He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough. 

From a front-line perspective

Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS).  In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died. 

Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St